In most rural villages the main source of water is from a local shallow well but these are becoming increasingly unreliable
Simple shallow wells up to 10m deep can be constructed by villagers but if the rains are poor then by August the water table can have fallen such that the well becomes dry.
Depending on the level of funds and skill available various improvements can be made to reduce the possibility of contamination and maintain the quality of the water. The pictures show the different possibilities. Click to enlarge them.
Even if the water level is sufficient the Ipilili water hole is highly prone to contamination.
The next level of sophistication that can be constructed by villagers is to have a brick lined well as seen at Isegenhe but even these deteriorate with time due to root penetration and other contamination.
If funds are available these problems are avoided by buying-in factory made reinforced concrete rings for lining the well or sometimes using a mould on site to make them.
Finally, to prevent unwanted material being washed in by water spillage the well must be capped, with a concrete spillway, and a hand pump fitted as seen at Mwanhala.
Since the pictures were taken the Isegenhe well has been properly capped, Mwanhala has been fitted with an electric pump and its hand pump transferred to Isegenhe.